Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Using GDP to Measure Economic Health Free Online Research Papers GDP to measure the business cycle: Ã¢â¬ËGross Domestic ProductsÃ¢â¬â¢ affects the American business cycle, and keeps equilibrium in our economy. GDP measures two things to help in stabilizing our economy. The economyÃ¢â¬â¢s income and expenditure, these two tactics are used simultaneously in measuring the annual household income and how much each household spends on goods; this is a continuously repeated cycle in the flow of money that keeps the equality to an equilibrium. The flow of income and expenditure must equal for the economy to become a whole. How this works is income is the same as expenditure for every transaction there is two parties, the seller and the buyer, when a buyer spends a dollar this becomes a dollar income for a seller. For instance Jane Doe spends $100 on for pool service to the seller John Doe for services rendered, this raises the economy of the business cycle $100. (Mankiw, 2004) Within the business cycle of economics the services paid for by consumers relate largely to the GDP flow of economy. The dollars spent by consumers flow through the market of production within a business, this allows for paying the wages for labors, fixed costs such as electricity, water , gas, and equipment. The fixed assets that are paid are also used to pay for the labor wages of these businesses. Once the labor wages are paid the recipients go out in the market and purchase more goods that contribute to the economical flow of income and expenditure, which in return contributes to a Gross Domestic Production flow in the business world. (Mankiw, 2004) Describe the roles of Government bodies that determine National Fiscal Policies: The knowledge of the governmental roles played in planning of our economical system is very confusing and very over whelming too many Americans. Most citizens donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand economics enough to know that the Government has several bodies that are critical too measuring the economical health of America, and managing your money. (Tan, 2009) Within these bodies are the Economists, Ministry of Trade/Commerce, Federal Reserve and many other bodies both government and non-government, that are always forecasting the future for any negative or positive development to better prepared. There are five areas of most concern watched regularly by bodies of Government and non-government officials: a) Leading Economic IndicatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ Index: On a monthly basis the U.S. Conference Board will release a set of economic indicators indexÃ¢â¬â¢s that are reported to various media so economists will be aware of the situation. This will allow the layman to understand the overall health of the economy. So if there are three consecutive increases in the Index it is a positive state of the economy, just the opposite will show a negative balance in the state of economy. b) Unemployment figures: When economists and politicians look at unemployment they will see it from two separate angles, the rise in unemployment insurance claims and a decline in claims. Both are can be an effective outcome of the economy, when there is a rise in unemployment insurance claims this is a danger signal to economists. But on the other hand a low rate of claims may carry the potential for higher inflation. c) Durable Goods: This shows an increasing demand in goods to show the economy to be strongly expanding, and a possible backlog of orders. d) Housing Starts: The economy will measure the health of the housing industry by how many permits are issued, but an over abundance of in new housing will cause a major deficit on the economy. e) New Factory Orders: This is watched by economist and citizens to show a trigger in the economical growth or decline of gross domestic products. As any layman would know that an increase would show a positive economy, and just the opposite a falling demand would indicate a deficit in the economy. (Tan, 2009) How do changes in government spending and taxes positively or negatively impact the economyÃ¢â¬â¢s production and employment? Between 1980 -2000Ã¢â¬â¢s fiscal years studies were performed to determine where the most economical impact on state taxes of production and employment come from, all economic growth can be attributed to government spending. It has been determined that a variable shift in government spend away from goods and services and more toward the federal grant system, taking away from the state capita causes a decrease in state economical tax growth and also affects employment. Another affect towards state employment are state and federal fiscal policies of economies. States with significantly larger shares of federal related dollars towards defense have a greater impact on state and federal taxes; defense will also have a negative per capita output and a higher unemployment rate. When both state and federal government spending in increase will allow for an increase not only in state output but also a lower tax cut will have a more positive outcome one the employment rate. (Canto, 1987; Grossman, 1990; Tomljaqmovich, 2004; Weber, 2000) Research Papers on Using GDP to Measure Economic HealthTwilight of the UAWPETSTEL analysis of IndiaThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesDefinition of Export QuotasResearch Process Part OneRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into Asia
Sunday, February 23, 2020
What requirements Texas Courts impose for someone to be an expert in medical malpractice - Research Paper Example Legal statutes, and laws in America, and to be more precise, in the state of Texas, have continued to change, as some parts of this statutes, have exhibited signs and mannerisms that are not entirely right, as of today. Other parts on the other hand have suffered judicial refining, that has sorted them either demolished, and some being re-structured to come out in a very different approach. As mentioned above, one statute often cited in court rulings meant to deal with the issue of medical malpractice in Texas is that of a two-year statute of limitations. When narrowed down, this is translated that, no medical malpractice issue in the state of Texas, may be brought fourth, after a period exceeding two years from the date of completion of treatment (Austin, 2012). For one to rightfully assume the title of an expert in medical malpractice, and in this case, in the state of Texas, it is of utmost importance that the individual follows the basic rules, as per the constitution of America. Many may ask the question, why is this? Primarily, such level of expertise has to be legal, and in accordance with the law. Any act that done contrary to the law, is consequently punishable in a court of law, and with this, there would not be any consideration of one being an expert, while behind bars. The Texas legislature in the year 1977 passed a well-debated and conclusively deliberated act that provided for victims medical liability as well as insurance. This statute put up with the main intention to offer subsequent response in occasion of a needy situation, to a particular case perceived with crisis in medical malpractice, was just what the public needed. The article of law that ruled over such scenarios brought with it pre-suit notification to the particular parties involved, professional reports that came by early, in the litigation process, as well as what would be
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Islamic finance - Research Paper Example However, there were banking activities that existed before this period although the operations were conducted in Mecca. From the historical perspective, Islamic banking can be categorized into three eras. The first era was in the early year of Islam until the time of Caliph ArRashidin. The second era of Islamic banking extends from the period of Caliphates to the fall of Uthmaniyah Empire. The third period which is the modern era is current Islamic banking. Prophet Muhammad got divine revelations that Mecca was a city of trade. There were a number of economic techniques and concepts that were used in early Islamic banking such as partnership, bills of exchange, cheques, promissory notes among others (Ahmad, 2010). Islamic banks products exclude the use of Interest which is prohibited in Islam. Rather, the Islamic banks provide an anticipated profit rate for rental rates and savings. According to Islamic Law, money should not be used to create more money. Islamic banks are required to offer services in return for a profit. Instead of the traditional accounts that have interest rates, Islamic banks offer accounts that provide profits or losses. The bank buys property with the customer money, which creates a return to the bank. In case of savings, a customer makes deposits in Al Rayan banks for an expected profit rate. Unlike interest, expected profit rate is not fixed as the profit is made through Sharia compliant investments. There is an element of risk carried in the expected profit rate, but it is usually managed by Al Rayan Bank. Islamic banks Home Purchase Plans are on the basis of leasing and co-ownership, whereby the bank and the customer purchase the property jointly. The monthly paymen ts made by the Customer little by little boost their share in the property. At the maturity of the finance term, the title of the asset is
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Major Schools of Thought in Psychology Essay When psychology was first established as a science separate from biology and philosophy, the debate over how to describe and explain the human mind and behavior began. The first school of thought, structuralism, was advocated by the founder of the first psychology lab, Wilhelm Wundt. Almost immediately, other theories began to emerge and vie for dominance in psychology. The following are some of the major schools of thought that have influenced our knowledge and understanding of psychology: Structuralism vs. Functionalism: 1) Structuralism was the first school of psychology, and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. Major structuralist thinkers include Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchner. 2) Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of William James. This school focused on the functions of human behaviors and not their structure. Major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr. Evolutionary psychology is founded on the view that the function of all psychological phenomena in human evolution is a necessary perspective to their understanding. Gestalt Psychology: 3) Gestalt psychology is based upon the idea that we experience things as unified wholes. This approach to psychology began in Germany and Austria during the late 19th century in response to the molecular approach of structuralism. Rather that breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest element, the gestalt psychologists believed that you must look at the whole of experience. According to the gestalt thinkers, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Max Wertheimer is often credited as the founder of this movement. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud was the found of 4) Psychodynamic approach. This school of thought emphasizes the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior. Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: the id, the ego, and the superego. Other major psychodynamic thinkers include Anna Freud, Carl Jung, and Erik Erikson. Behaviorism: 5) Behaviorism became the dominant school of thought during the 1950s. Based upon the work of thinkers such as John Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. F. Skinner, behaviorism holds that all behavior can be explained by environmental causes, rather than by internal forces. Behaviorism is focused on observable behavior. Theories of learning including classical conditioning and operant conditioning were the focus of a great deal of research. Humanistic Psychology: 6) Humanistic psychology developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Humanistic psychology instead focused on individual free will, personal growth, and self-actualization. Major humanist thinkers included Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Cognitive Psychology: 7) Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, problem solve, remember, and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. One of the most influential theories from this school of thought was the stages of cognitive development theory proposed by Jean Piaget. Later work in this field was pioneered by names like Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"A kingdom is in turmoil as the old King Roland dies and its worthy successor, Prince Peter, must do battle to claim what is rightly his. Plotting against him is the evil Flagg and his pawn, young Prince Thomas. Yet with every plan there are holes Ã¢â¬â like ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢s terrible secret. And the determined Prince Peter, who is planning a daring escape from his imprisonmentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (very first page) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The sequence of events that occur in the plot go like this: Two sons are born from Queen Sasha and King Roland, Prince Peter then Prince Thomas. Fearing that the Queen Sasha would ruin his plans, Flagg, the several hundred years old magician and royal advisor succeeded in deposing of her when Peter is only five. Eleven years later, after Peter served the King his nightly glass of vine, Flagg came in and killed Roland by offering him a second glass of wine that was poison. Peter was found guilty of the murder, as Flagg had planned, and was sentenced to life imprisonment atop a tower called the Needle by Anders Peyna, the Judge-General. Peter would spend a good five years in the Needle until he decides to make a successful escape, only to encounter Flagg for a final confrontation. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Thomas, one of the main characters, is a particularly interesting character for several reasons. First the narrator, portrayed as a storyteller, describes Thomas as the weak, vulnerable, sad, confused, lonely younger brother of Prince Peter, who was the heir of...
Sunday, January 12, 2020
There have been substantial changes to modern awards over the years that employer associations have historically and are currently advocating. In this regard, issues such as penalty rates and flexibility stemming from employer association submissions have been researched and examined by (Sheldon & Thornthwaite 2013) portraying evidence that employer associations relatively prefer cost cutting and enhanced managerial prerogative as oppose to productivity. Entailed within this essay the key concepts such as penalty rates, managerial prerogative, flexibility and productivity will be discussed with particular focus the modern award reviews combined with an overview of Sheldon and ThornthwaiteÃ¢â¬â¢s argument in summary and concurrence. According to (Boxall & Purcell, 2011) management goals are predominantly associated with cost efficiency, controllable flexibility, legitimacy and managerial power. It is these goals that evidently become the concern of relevant employer associations, as such they take on the role of combining, allocating and utilising resources in order to achieve organisational objectives. There have however been significant changes over the years regarding employer association involvement particularly seen over the course of the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. Employer associations aim to influence and negotiate with the Government of the day as well as tribunals in an effort to ensure that the mutual concerns of organisations are being met. (Sheldon & Thornthwaite, 2013) discuss key system issues with regard to employer associations mainly focusing on restricting unionÃ¢â¬â¢s right of entry, penalty rates and other provisions incorporating aspects of substantive and procedural rules. Modern Award reviews primarily began in 2012, it is during this time that leading associations took the opportunity to not only push for more workable provisions but also to campaign for more substantial changes within various awards. Employer associations accounted for a large number of submissions to the tribunal on a broad range of issued in particular penalty rates, public holidays and flexibility. In the technical sense, penalty rates are a form of tangible benefit within the financial context which generally refers to those payments made to workers outside normal working hours. Regulator motivations for including penalty rates in modern awards as stated by (Sloane, 2014) are twofold: firstly, to compensate workers for work performed during what was historically known as Ã¢â¬Ëunsociable hoursÃ¢â¬â¢ and secondly, to dissuade employers from operating within those hours. However,Ã as advocated by (Sheldon & Thornthwaite, 2013) the modern award reviews have Ã¢â¬Ëprovided a forum for employers and their associations to escalate their campaign to the significance of penalty rates in industries operating during the traditionally Ã¢â¬Ëunsociable hoursÃ¢â¬â¢, which is evidence that employer associations prefer to enhance managerial prerogative over productivity which is predominantly concerned with the cost of resources. The push for the examination of provisions regarding penalty rates has mostly been seen to affect the tourism and retail industries. Flexibility is made up of numerous components however, within in the context of the workplace involves thinking creatively about how working lives can be better structured to match individual and business needs (Job Access, 2012). Following the review of penalty rate provisions, amendments to the flexibility clause were sought after with particular attention paid to the manufacturing industry. Greater flexibility was requested in the taking and cashing out of annual leave in a further attempt to enhance cost cutting initiatives through control measures which ultimately leads to the underlying concept of elevated managerial prerogative. Managerial prerogative may be defined as managementÃ¢â¬â¢s unqualified authority to exercise its discretion in certain areas under the belief that they have exclusive rights to make decisions and therefore resist any interference with that control (Storey, 1983). Sheldon & Thornthwaite make reference to managerial prerogative in the defensive context through aggressive industrial action which has historically been used as a means of strengthening managerial prerogative. The 2011 Qantas lockout serves as one of the most significant demonstrations of managerial prerogative through the organisations decision to engage in a lockout. As part of a wider push to entrench managerial prerogative employers were also seen to be engaging in aggressive bargaining strategies in order to escalate disputes with the intention of gaining access to arbitration which has an adverse affect on productivity. (Stewart, 2005) promotes the fact that there needs to be greater emphasis on productivity which forges greater efficiency and high trust work systems founded on flexible and fair employment. Productivity is the economic factor stemming from the adequate use of resources; productivity is essentially the measure of achievement through the amount of output that is achieved as result of the input predominantly referring to land, labour and capital as the key resources. Between penalty rates and productivity there is no association they are separated by the contexts of which they are defined. (AI Group, 2012) identify key problem areas within the Fair Work Act Review and state that it is Ã¢â¬Ëhampering productivity growth, workplace flexibility and competitivenessÃ¢â¬â¢ thus meaning that penalty rates do not influence productivity levels. (Sheldon & Thornthwaite, 2013) do make it apparent that employer associationÃ¢â¬â¢s main concerns do in fact favour cost cutting and managerial prerogative rather than focusing on the importance of productivity enhancement. (Sheldon & Thornthwaite, 2013) further explored critiques from employer associations whose predominant concern was based on the fact that managerial prerogative was reduced through the increasing weakness of employerÃ¢â¬â¢ freedom to contract. (DEEWR, 2012) Released a report referring to more productive and equitable workplaces which disappointed employer associations thus further confirming productivity enhancement to be of no concern. It is clearly demonstrated that employer associationsÃ¢â¬â¢ main concerns were that of cost cutting and managerial prerogative it is however, the amalgamation of all the relevant key concepts discussed that essentially equip organisations with a competitive advantage. The core concepts behind the submissions made by employer associations clearly obscure the importance of larger issues which further represents that employer associations prioritise the ease of managements working lives over that of the worker. Bibliography Australian Industry (AI) Group (2012), Applications to Vary a Modern Award Ã¢â¬â 2012 Review, Stephen Smith, Director Ã¢â¬â National Workplace Relations. Boxall, P and Purcell, J (2011), The Goals of Human Resource Management, Strategy and Human Resource Management, 3rd Edition, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp. 1-36. Department of Employment, Education and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) (2012), Towards More Productive and Equitable Workplaces: An Evaluation of the Fair Work Legislation, Australian Government. Job Access, Flexibility in the Workplace, Australian Government, Accessed 1st May 2014 Sheldon, P and Thornthwaite, L. (2013), Employer and Employer Association Matters in 2012, Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 55: No. 3, pp. 386-402. Sloane, J (2014), Pay Penalty Rates, but not Through Awards System, The Australian. Stewart, A (2005), A Simple Plan for Workplace Regulation, Industrial Law News, Issue 7. Storey, J (1983). Managerial Prerogative and the Question of Control, Routledge & Kegan Paul Publishing, London.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Everyone knows the parable of the emperor with no clothes. The significance of a child being the one to point out the emperors nudity, as opposed to a sermonizing preacher or self-righteous intellectual, is simple to understand. Neither morality nor logic was responsible for stripping the emperors veil of falsehood. All it took was the truth. One cant help but think of this when considering Gary Johnson, the Republican governor of New Mexico, who, despite pressure from power brokers at the top of his own party, has proclaimed that the emperor that is this countrys war on drugs is not only naked to the world, but that its body is festering with the sores of moral decay and corruption. In the governors own words, The drug problemÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Of course, many people have closed their eyes to the truth about the drug war for so long that they cant help but respond negatively to Johnsons common-sense approach. Given how many billions of dollars have been thrown into advertisements that criminalize all drug use without making any distinctions, it is no wonder that many people have trouble divorcing themselves from the illusion of righteousness. This is not a reflection on these people, of course, but a testament to the magnitude of the propaganda machine that has been let loose upon them. But no amount of propaganda can make a lie true, and examining the truth of just one tool of the war on drugs is sufficient to illustrate that it is not such a noble crusade. Civil asset forfeiture statutes allow law enforcement agencies to seize money and property without convicting, indicting or arresting the owners for any crime. Indeed, property can be seized even if the owners have been acquitted. Eighty percent of people who have property forfeited are not charged with a crime. Police are allowed to seize any assets that they claim to be involved with illicit drugs. Civil asset forfeiture is based on the concept that property that is allegedly connected to a crime is itself incriminating, and can be seized and tried in civil court. To challenge the forfeiture, persons who have their property taken must pay a bond of 10 percent of the value of their seized